JEJAK KEHIDUPAN YESUS

 

Last Supper Room (Coenaculum), Jerusalem

The Last Supper Room is a second-story room in Jerusalem that commemorates the "upper room" in which Jesus shared the Last Supper with the disciples. It is located directly above the Tomb of David and near the Dormition Abbey on Mount Zion.
 

The Crusader-era "Last Supper Room" on Mount Zion in Jerusalem


Jesus' disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make preparations for you to eat the Passover?" So he sent two of his disciples, telling them, "Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him.
"Say to the owner of the house he enters, 'The Teacher asks: Where is my guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?' He will show you a large upper room, furnished and ready. Make preparations for us there." (Mark 14:12-15)
The site of the Last Supper is not known and the Gospel accounts provide few clues. It cannot be the present "Last Supper Room," for it was built in the 12th century. However, it is possible it stands over or near the original site of the Last Supper and/or Pentecost.
Beneath the floor of the building are Byzantine and Roman floors and the foundations go back to at least the 2nd century AD. It is possible that the "little church of God" that existed on Mount Zion in 130 AD (mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis) was on this site
Danger and persecutions would have excluded Christian invention of a new holy place in the 2nd century, so if an active church existed in 130 it must have already been important for some time perhaps because the upper room was nearby. In those times this was an affluent area of the city and a wealthy Christian may have opened his home for use as a church.

 

Coenaculum / Cenacle / Last Supper Room, Perjamuan Terakhir Yesus bersama 12 murid-Nya sebelum menuju Taman Gethsemane


The Mount Zion church was reconstructed in the 4th century after persecutions ended, at which point it was known as "the Upper Church of the Apostles." This designation referred, however, not to the Last Supper but to the apostles' receiving of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost, which also occurred in an "upper room" (Acts 1:13, 2:1). A tradition located the upper room of Pentecost on Mount Zion by 348, when it was mentioned by Cyril of Jerusalem.
In the 5th century the church was referred to as "Zion, Mother of all the Churches," and it was around this time that it was identified with the site of the Last Supper. This seems to have been based on a natural conclusion that since both Pentecost and the Last Supper occured in an upper room, the two events happened in the same room.

The Byzantine church was destroyed by fire in 614 during the Persian attack and again in 965. It was in ruins when the Crusaders arrived, who chose it as one of the stations on the pentitential procession that preceded the final assult on the city in July 1099. The Last Supper Room that pilgrims visit today was built by the Crusaders in the 12th century as part of the Church of St. Mary of Zion.
The Crusader church became one of the glories of Jerusalem, but it fell into ruins once again after the Crusader defeat. From the mid-13th century, the remains were pillaged for building materials. The site was then revived and restored by Franciscans in the 14th century and used as a Franciscan monastery until 1552.
The room was transformed into a mosque by the Ottomans in 1524, who were less concerned with the site's Christian traditions than with the Tomb of King David (the "Prophet David" in Muslim tradition) on the level below.
 

South wall with mihrab and Arabic plaque


The Upper Room is approached via a pointed-arch entrance from the main lane on Mount Zion, then by ascending stairs immediately to the left in the courtyard. The courtyard is part of what was once a pilgrim hospice, then an Ottoman house, and now a Jewish yeshiva.
The Last Supper Room is an attractive, mostly empty rectangular room with pillars and a groin-vaulted ceiling. The capitals on the pillars are mainly 12th-century and Gothic in style. There are traces of 14th-century paint on the wall just inside to the right of the door. The east end originally had an altar and choir, but these were destroyed when the dome was built over the Tomb of David in the lower level.
The chamber retains the trappings of a mosque, including restored stained-glass Ottoman windows with Arabic inscriptions and the ornate mihrab (an alcove indicating the direction of Mecca). There are also two Arabic plaques in the wall and a Levantine dome.
Stairs in the southwest corner of the room (no entry) lead down into the Tomb of David. A dome above the stairs is supported by marble columns with a notable capital depicting pelicans pecking their parent's breast, a symbol of charity and sacrifice in Christian art. Stairs by the minaret lead up to the roof, from which there are fine views to the Mount of Olives and beyond.
 

Pope John Paul II at prayer in the Last Supper Room


Di dekat basilika Tertidurnya Bunda Maria terdapat Senakel (artinya: Ruangan Perjamuan Terakhir). Tempat ini sangat dihormati oleh seluruh umat Kristen, sebab di situlah Yesus mengadakan Perjamuan Terakhir menjelang wafatnya sambil mengadakan sakramen ekaristi dan imamat. Di situ pula Yesus yang telah bangkit menampakkan dirinya kepada para rasulnya, dan di situlah Roh Kudus turun atas para rasul dan sejumlah anggota gereja masa awal. Peristiwa Perjamuan Terakhir dapat kita baca dalam Injil Matius 26:17-25 ; Markus 14:12-21 ; Lukas 22:7-14,21-23. Ruangan itu cukup besar dan terletak di bagian atas rumah. Inilah sebabnya rumah itu dari dulu disebut "Induk Segala Gereja". Rumah tersebut terdiri dari dua kapel, bawah dan atas. Di tempat itu pula menjelang Perjamuan Terakhir, Yesus membasuh kaki para muridNya. Menurut Kisah Rasul 1:15-26, di ruangan Senakel diadakan pemilihan rasul pengganti Yudas Iskariot.

Pada waktu itu Petrus untuk pertama kalinya tampil sebagai pimpinan gereja. Senakel boleh dipandang sebagai tempat pertama ibadah umat Kristen. Misa atau kebaktian diadakan di sini tanpa henti-hentinya sejak zaman para rasul sampai pertengahan abad XVI. Di sekitar tahun 135 Masehi, di dekat Senakel telah didirikan sebuah bangunan yang kini disebut Makam Daud. Di tempat itu umat Kristen berkumpul dulu untuk mengadakan ibadah harian. Senakel dikhususkan untuk perayaan ekaristi saja. Pada abad IV, dekat Senakel didirikan sebuah basilika baru yang bernama Sion Suci. Di dalam basilika itu dihormati Tiang Penyesahan Yesus, relikwi St. Stefanus, martir pertama yang ditemukan pada tahun 415. Tanggal 25 Desember dirayakan peringatan Raja Daud serta St. Yakobus, uskup pertama Yerusalem. Basilika itu dihancurkan oleh tentara Persia pada tahun 614, lalu dibangun kembali, dan akhirnya dirubuhkan lagi oleh serdadu Islam.

Pada waktu para pejuang Perang Salib datang ke Yerusalem, basilika itu sudah hancur sama sekali. Yang luput dari kehancuran adalah 'ruangan atas' saja. Lalu mulai dibangun basilika baru, indah, dan besar. Pada tahun 1187, setelah Yerusalem dikalahkan oleh Saladin, Senakel diserahkan ke tangan Siria. Para peziarah boleh mengunjunginya, sedangkan para imam Katolik boleh mempersembahkan misa di dalamnya. Tetapi basilika yang didirikan semasa Perang Salib, karena tidak terpelihara, hancur juga akhirnya. Pada abad XIV pemeliharaan atas Senakel diserahkan kepada ordo OFM. Sejak itu pimpinan OFM di Yerusalem bergelar "Guardian Bukit Sion'. Para biarawan OFM bertahan di sini selama seabad saja. Umat Muslim, berdasarkan tradisi Yahudi bahwa di tempat itu dikuburkan nabi Daud, mendesak supaya tempat itu diserahkan kepada mereka. Padahal dapat dipastikan bahwa Daud tidak pernah dikuburkan di situ. Sejak tahun 1551 para biarawan OFM terpaksa meninggalkan tempat suci ini.

Senakel diubah menjadi masjid untuk menghormati nabi Daud. Orang-orang Kristen maupun Yahudi tidak boleh masuk ke dalamnya, dan larangan itu berlaku hingga tahun 1948. Namun sampai sekarang umat Katolik tidak pernah diijinkan merayakan misa di tempat ini. Bangunan yang dapat disaksikan sekarang masih mempertahankan susunan berlantai dua. Ruangan atas (15,30 meter x 9,40 meter) terbagi dua oleh tiga tiang. Inilah ruangan ekaristi pertama, ruangan diadakannya Sakramen Imamat Perjanjian Baru.

Di sudut barat daya ruangan ini terlihat tangga yang mempersatukan kedua lantai. Di sebelah timur ruangan ini ada 8 anak tangga yang menuju ke kapel dimana Roh Kudus turun atas para rasul pada hari Pentakosta. Para pejuang Perang Salib secara simbolis menempatkan di sini sebuah kuburan untuk menghormati raja Daud, tetapi mereka melakukannya karena sejak awal kekristenan raja itu diperingati di sini secara liturgis. Pada tahun 1928 di tembok sebelah selatan dibuat mihrab, tempat kiblat para pendoa beragama Islam. Ruangan bawah terbagi dua juga. Di bagian barat, dulu Yesus membasuh kaki para muridNya; sedangkan di bagian timur, Yesus menampakkan dirinya sesudah bangkit.

Walaupun orang-orang Yahudi tahu bahwa tempat ini tidak mungkin pernah dipakai sebagai kuburan raja Daud (ia pasti dikuburkan di sebelah selatan bukit Ofel). Mereka menghiasi tempat ini dengan panji-panji keagamaan mereka dan menjadikannya tempat kultus nasional. Kuburan Daud dibuat dari batu, diselubungi dengan kain khusus berwarna merah dengan motif 'bintang Daud' dan dilengkapi dengan beberapa mahkota perak yang dulu dipakai pada pucuk Penutup Gulungan Taurat. Semua hiasan ini dibawa ke sini dari berbagai sinagoga yang dihancurkan oleh Nazi. Orang-orang Yahudi berdoa di sini sepanjang tahun, khususnya pada hari raya Shevat, hari Kematian Daud.
 

The Bread and Wine represent the body and blood of Jesus, Who gave His own life that the world might be saved. The Bible tells us that we, as physical bodies, were formed out of the "dust of the ground" (Genesis 2:7). Thus, every time we partake of the Sacrament, we are taking the atoms of Jesus' body into the "ground" of our own bodies. It is therefore only one step removed to place the Sacrament into the earth, the material from which our bodies have been made. Also, When Jesus was in the Garden of Gethsemane, He sweated drops of blood as He prayed (Luke 22:44), blood which fell to the earth. And while He was on the cross, the centurion pierced His side (John 19:34), and blood and water fell to the earth. Then, after His death, His body was placed into the earth, in the tomb (Matthew 27:59-60). So Jesus' own body and blood have already been sealed into the earth.

 


Names: Last Supper Room; Room of the Last Supper; Hall of the Last Supper; Upper Room; Coenaculum; Cenacle
Type of site: Biblical site; Crusader site
Dates: 12th century
Location: Mount Zion, Jerusalem
Hours: Sat.-Thurs. 8-5, Fri. 8-1

Cost: Free
Bus: 1, 2, 38

 

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