JEJAK KEHIDUPAN YESUS

 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem
 

Adjacent to the Catholic chapel is the Greek Orthodox Calvary, which contains the actual Rock of Calvary (Station 12) around which the church was built. The rock can be seen under glass on either side of the main altar, and beneath the altar there is a hole that allows you to touch the rock itself. The slot cut for the cross is shown in the east apse along with those of the two thieves.

Directly beneath Calvary on the main floor (entered through a door next to the Stone of Unction) is the Chapel of Adam, which enshrines a cracked slab of rock behind glass. This identification with Adam is based on the ancient tradition (noted by Origen in the 2nd century) that Christ was crucified over the place where Adam was buried. The crack in the rock is said to be caused by the earthquake that occurred during the Crucifixion. Archaeologists suggest it was probably an original flaw that caused the workmen to abandon this section of the old quarry. At one time, the tombs of the Crusader kings Godfrey of Bouillon, Baldwin I and Baldwin V were near the entrance to this chapel; they have long since disappeared.
 

The Chapel of Mary Magdalene, part of the large Catholic area in the northwest corner of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre


Di sekitar Makam Suci dulu terletak Taman Yusuf dari Arimatea. Di situlah pagi-pagi pada hari kebangkitan Yesus, berjalan Maria Magdalena sambil menangis karena melihat makam Tuhan sudah terbuka dan kosong. Saat itu ia mendengar suara, "Ibu, mengapa menangis?". Ia menoleh ke belakang dan melihat seorang yang berdiri tidak jauh daripadanya. karena menyangka bahwa orang itu adalah penunggu taman, ia berkata kepadanya, "Pak, kalau bapak yang memindahkan dia dari sini, tolong katakan kepada saya dimana bapak menaruh dia supaya saya dapat mengambilnya". Seketika itu juga Yesus menyatakan dirinya dan memanggil namanya, "Maria!". Kemudian Maria menjawab, "Rabuni!", artinya guru. Lalu dengan penuh sukacita berlari untuk sujud di dekat kaki Yesus (bdk. Yohanes 20:11-18). Peristiwa ini digambarkan oleh pelukis Kuba Del Rio pada tahun 1855 di kapel St. Maria Magdalena yang ada di sebelah timur laut basilika.

 

Entrance to the Catholicon, just opposite the entrance to the Holy Sepulchre (left)


Walking to the west from the Stone of Unction, visitors arrive at the focal point of the Holy Sepulchre Church. The round area of the church, known as the Rotunda or Anastasis, preserves the location and shape, and a few original columns, of Constantine's 4th-century Church of the Resurrection built on the site of Christ's tomb. The Rotunda is surmounted by a large dome, completed in the 1960s. This is decorated with a 12-pointed star (1997) whose rays symbolize the outreach of the 12 apostles. The diameter of the dome is about 20.5 meters; the height is 34 meters.

Underneath the large dome is the Tomb of Christ itself, enshrined in a large, boxy shrine. The shrine, referred to as the edicule, is supported by scaffolding on the outside due to earthquakes and is not terribly attractive. The current structure was built in 1809-10 after the severe fire of 1808. It replaced one dating from 1555, commissioned by the Franciscan friar Bonifacio da Ragusa. (The original 4th-century shrine constructed under Constantine was destroyed by the sultan Hakim in 1009.) The Armenians, the Latins and the Greeks serve Liturgy daily inside the Holy Sepulchre. It is also used for the Holy Saturday ceremony of the Holy Fire, which is celebrated by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch himself.
 

Entrance to the Catholicon


Dari kapel St. Maria Magdalena, dengan melewati dua tangga, kita memasuki kapel milik biarawan OFM yang mengenang penampakan Yesus sesudah kebangkitannya kepada Bunda Maria. Injil sama sekali tidak menceritakan penampakan ini, tetapi tradisi meyakininya sejak dahulu. Dalam altar utama di kapel ini tersimpan Sakramen Mahakudus, dan para biarawan OFM siang malam mengadakan ibadah di tempat ini. Pada altar samping tampak sebuah tiang patah tingginya 75 cm yang berabad-abad lamanya dihormati sebagai Tiang Penyesahan Yesus. Di belakang kapel ini terletak biara kecil para biarawan OFM yang bertugas di basilika. Setelah keluar dari kapel Penampakan, dengan mengarah ke timur melewati 7 lengkungan yang dinamakan Lengkungan Lengkungan Perawan Suci. Di bagian ini dapat dilihat sejumlah tiang dan lengkungan kuno sekali. Di ujungnya terdapat Penjara Yesus, sebab di situlah Yesus dikurung, konon menunggu saat dieksekusi. Selanjutnya sampai ke kapel St. Longinus, serdadu Romawi yang membuka lambung Yesus sehingga keluarlah darah dan air (bdk. Yohanes 19:34). Tidak jauh dari situ ada kapel Pembagian Pakaian milik gereja Armenia. Para serdadu Roma membuang undi untuk menentukan siapa dari mereka berhak atas pakaian Yesus (bdk. Yohanes 19:23-24).
 

The Catholicon (Greek Orthodox cathedral), looking east from the entrance


Inside, the shrine contains two small rooms. The first is the Greek Orthodox Chapel of the Angel, which features an altar containing a piece of the stone rolled away by angels at the Resurrection. In the wall by the entrance, steps lead to the roof of the edicule. A low door on the opposite side leads to the tiny Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, which contains the tomb of Christ itself. This is the 14th Station of the Cross and the holiest site in Christendom. Here a marble slab covers the place where the body of Christ was laid and from which he rose from the dead. A vase with candles marks the spot where his head rested. The slab was installed here in the 1555 reconstruction and purposely cracked to deter Ottoman looters.
 

Inside the Catholicon, looking east to the iconostasis. On the left is the throne of the Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch; on the right is that of the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem.


After visiting the tomb, walk around to the back (west) of the edicule to an ironwork, cage-like structure containing the Coptic chapel. Beneath the altar is another piece of Christ's tomb. Opposite the Coptic chapel, inside a rough-hewned apse at the far west end of the Church is the Syrian chapel.
 

Cupola of the Catholicon. This is the smaller of the two blue domes visible from outside of the church.


To the right (north) of the sepulchre is the Roman Catholic area, which consists of a large square chapel (the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene) and another private chapel for Franciscan monks. The former is held to be the site where Jesus appeared to Mary after his resurrection. In the Crusader era, this chapel was approached from the street to the west via an impressive entrance portal.
 

Entrance to the Chapel of St. Helen in the west end of the church

 

Setelah melewati kapel Pembagian Pakaian, lewat tangga turun ke kapel Salib Suci yang bernama kapel St. Helena pula, milik gereja Armenia. Altar tengah dipersembahkan kepada St. Helena, istri kaisar yang pada abad IV giat mencari tempat-tempat yang berhubungan dengan sengsara Yesus serta menemukan salibnya. Altar di sebelah kiri dipersembahkan kepada St. Dismas, penyamun yang baik yang dari mulut Yesus sendiri mendengar janji-Nya, "Hari ini juga engkau bersama Aku di Firdaus" (Yohanes 23:43).

 

The Chapel of St. Helen, a.k.a. the Armenian Chapel of St. Gregory

 

The Chapel of St. Helen

 

The Catholic half of the Chapel of the Finding of the Cross, featuring a life-sized statue of St. Helen (Constantine's mother) with the cross. According to an early legend, Helen discovered the True Cross on which Christ was crucified while the church was being excavated and built around 330 AD.


Kapel Penemuan Salib dapat dicapai dengan menuruni tangga di sebelah kanan kapel St. Helena. Di sebuah tempat penampungan air yang sudah tidak dipakai pada awal abad IV ditemukan salib-salib dari zaman Yesus dihukum mati. Ratu Helena dan uskup Yerusalem Makarios mengenali salib Yesus berkat penyembuhan ajaib seorang wanita yang sedang menghadapi ajalnya dan diletakkan di atas salib asli Yesus. Kapel ini adalah milik gereja Katolik. Di atas altar ada patung St. Helena. Tempat ditemukannya salib Yesus ada di sebelah kanan altar itu.
 

The Greek half of the Chapel of the Finding of the Cross. On the left is the remains of a Crusader fresco; on the right is a candlelit altar.


Just opposite the entrance to the Sepulchre is the large nave of the church, which has been enclosed by a wall on all sides. Known as the Catholicon, this Greek Orthodox cathedral features a large iconostasis flanked by the thrones of the Patriarchs of Jerusalem and Antioch. Above is a colorful cupola, which dates from after the 1927 earthquake, decorated with an image of Christ and other icons.

An early tradition associated the site of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection as the center of the world, and by the 10th century it was marked by an omphalos. Today this is marked by a marble vessel in the west end of the Catholicon. (The pagan Greeks had their omphalos in Delphi.)
 

A door on the north side of the Chapel of St. Helena leads to the Chapel of St. Vartan, an Armenian chapel. This area was just discovered and excavated in the 1970s. The finds include remnants of walls built by Hadrian in the 2nd century, one of which contains this stone with a celebrating drawing of a merchant ship with the inscription DOMINE IVIMVS, "Lord we shall go." This drawing probably dates from before the completion of Constantine's church (c.330); some scholars even suggest the 2nd century. Unfortunately, this Armenian chapel is locked and not normally open to the public.


At the east end of the north aisle is the the chapel of the Prison of Christ, which according to 12th-century tradition housed Jesus and the two thieves before the Crucifixion. The first known mention of this is in the 8th century, by Epiphanius the Monk. The chapel probably originated as a liturgical station where the Passion and Death of Christ were commemorated.

Taking a right at the Prison leads into the ambulatory of the Crusader church, which has three chapels located in three apses: the Greek Chapel of St. Longinus (the Roman soldier who pierced Jesus' side and then converted) in the northeast corner; the Armenian Chapel of the Dividing of the Robes in the center; and the Greek Chapel of Derision or the Crowning of Thorns in the southeast apse. The latter contains a relic of the Column of Derision.
 

Entry to the Prison of Christ

 

Chapel of the Prison of Christ


Di sebelah kiri kapel Penemuan Salib, ada kapel Penghinaan milik gereja Orthodox. Kapel ini mengingatkan berbagai penghinaan yang dilontarkan oleh para imam, ahli Taurat, dan para tua-tua terhadap Yesus yang sedang tergantung di salib. Inilah kapel terakhir di lingkungan basilika Makam Suci (Holy Sepulchre).
 

Roof of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Behind the dome are the humble cells of the Ethiopian Orthodox monastery.


Between the last two chapels is a stairway that descends to the large Chapel of St. Helena, which is owned by the Armenians and known to them as the Chapel of St. Gregory. On the stairway walls are many small crosses carved by medieval pilgrims. The chapel has three aisles and two apses: the north apse is dedicated to the penitent thief; the south apse to St. Helena, mother of Constantine. A seat in the southeast corner of the chapel is said to have been occupied by Helena as she searched for the True Cross, a story first mentioned around 351.
From this corner, 13 more steps descend into the Chapel of the Finding of the Cross. The left side is owned by the Catholics, whose altar features a life-sized statue of St. Helena holding a cross. The Greeks have the right side of the chapel.

 

The Coptic Chapel of St. Michael the Archangel, entered via the main courtyard of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre


A door on the north side of the Chapel of St. Helena leads to the Chapel of St. Vartan, an Armenian chapel. This area was just discovered and excavated in the 1970s. The finds include remnants of walls built by Hadrian in the 2nd century, one of which contains a stone with a celebrating drawing of a merchant ship with the inscription DOMINE IVIMVS, "Lord we shall go." This drawing probably dates from before the completion of Constantine's church. The chapel is locked and not normally open to the public. (See Finding the Keys to the Chapel of St. Vartan for one scholar's adventure in gaining access).
 

The Ethiopian Orthodox chapel, entered via the Coptic Chapel of St. Michael the Archangel from the courtyard of the main church


After you leave the Church, you might wish to stop by the buildings that have their entrances in the east wall of the courtyard: the Coptic Chapel of St. Michael the Archangel, which includes a staircase leading to the Ethiopian Orthodox Chapel and the Coptic convent to the northeast; the Armenian Chapel of St. James; and the Greek Monastery of Abraham in the southeast corner of the court.
 

 

Virtual The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, click here http://www.360tr.com/kudus/kiyamet_eng/index.html

 


Dates: Built 326-35; restored and rebuilt 12th century
Address: Suq Khan e-Zeit and Christian Quarter Rd., Jerusalem, Israel 
Hours: Apr.-Sept., daily 5am-8pm; Oct.-Mar., daily 5 AM-7 PM.
Dress code: No shorts or sleeveless shirts

 

 

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